After the last Microsoft patch update, you would expect the Vole to get the next one right, but you would be wrong.
It seems that Microsoft has a policy of following Black Tuesday, or patch day, with Doomed Wednesday or Unpick The Patch Day.
There are loads of complaints on the Microsoft forums about the errors.
The problem seems to be automatic patches KB 2817630, KB 2810009, KB 2760411, KB 2760588, and KB 2760583.
KB 2817630 is a functionality patch for Office 2013. The belief is that installing this patch, possibly in conjunction with the KB 2810009 patch that is part of MS13-074, causes the folder pane in Outlook 2013 to disappear. This is what happens when you use the latest version of the shared Office library mso.dll 15.0.4535.1002 from KB2817630 in combination with an outdated version of Outlook.
So far Microsoft has been slow to respond. The patches were still available and still marked for automatic installation.
If you uninstall both patches you will get your folders back although there are other work arounds such as installing KB2817503 to update Outlook to the matching version 15.0.4535.1004. Updating Outlook with the August 2013 hotfix (KB2817503) restored the reading pane too.
The other errors were in KB 2760411, KB 2760588, and KB 2760583 are parts of the MS13-072 and MS13-073 security patches for Office 2007.
There are no error messages. Windows Update appears to install them; but the updates have not been installed. They are listed as being important, but Windows will not run them.